Laryngology is a branch of medicine dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of head and neck disorders, and particularly ear, nose, larynx and throat diseases. Laryngology is a term colloquially used. The proper name for this domain is otolaryngology. There are 9 sub-specializations in its range:
• laryngological oncology
• skull base surgery
• paediatric otolaryngology
The main purpose of a sinus surgery is to remove pathological changes, in particular polyps, tumours or cysts, as well as to enlarge sinuses and ensure a proper ventilation. The surgeries can be performed both under local and general anaesthesia. Everything depends on the stage of development of the disease and the patient’s condition. Before the surgery, the patient needs to be properly prepared what is associated with administration of medications which minimize the patient’s discomfort before and after the surgery. In order to increase the patients’ comfort, after the surgery, it is possible to apply an absorbable dressing which does not require removal.
Snoring is an effect of vibration of the soft palate during sleeping which is due to incorrect construction of the upper respiratory tract. On the other hand, sleep apnoea is a disorder which consists in experiencing, during sleeping, multiple moments of a partial or complete lack of air flow within the respiratory tract. Both phenomenons are defined as sleep-related breathing disorders. Both snoring and sleep apnoea should be treated. Nevertheless, the second one is much more dangerous. The sick person can wake up even several dozen times in the night, just to normalize the breath. It has an impact on his/her well-being. He/she is tired, sleepy, irritated, and this causes troubles in daily life functioning. Till now, no pharmacological preparation has been invented yet for the problems related to breathing disorders. However, there are a few known methods of surgical treatment, including laser treatment of snoring and sleep apnoea, as well as radiosurgery which is one of the most invasive methods.
Tonsils are very important elements of the throat immunological system. They are the first to start defence mechanisms of the organism. Sometimes, however, it happens that they begin to develop incorrectly, grow larger and fester, due to which they stop to perform the previously mentioned function. It is dangerous for health, because the pathologically altered tonsils cause swelling and breathing difficulties. They tighten the throat which leads to snoring and sleep apnoea. In this situation, it is necessary to have tonsils surgically removed, partially or completely. In less serious cases, it is possible to eliminate inflammation with rinses of different types. Beside of surgical treatment, very good effects gives cryotherapy. Also, reducing tonsils’ size can be obtained with a surgical laser. The most expected effects are given by joint treatments, e.g. cryotherapy and laser treatment. It is also possible to reduce the size of tonsils using radiotherapy techniques. The treatment is performed under local anaesthesia using a special electrode through which an electromagnetic wave is let.